The Indian Police Service simply known as Indian Police or IPS, is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India.�In 1948, a year after India gained independence from Britain, the Imperial Police (IP) was replaced by the Indian Police Service.
The IPS is not a law enforcement agency; rather it is a civil service in which officers are selected on the basis of professional merit as proven by competitive examinations, and to which all police officers are professionally identified. Police officers are employed by the police departments of respective states of India.
The First Police Commission, appointed on 17 August 1865, contained detailed guidelines for the desired system of police in India and defined police as a governmental department to maintain order, enforce the law, and prevent and detect crime. The Indian Police Service is not a force itself but a service providing leaders and commanders to staff the state police and all-India Para-Military Forces. Its members, who are all at least university graduates, are the senior officers of the police. With the passage of time Indian Police Service’s objectives were updated and redefined, the rules and functions of an Indian Police Service Officer are as follows:
Much before the Independence, superior police officers belonging to the Imperial Police (IP) were appointed by the Secretary of State on the basis of competitive examination. The very first open civil service examination for the service was held in England in June, 1893 and the top ten candidates were appointed as probationers of the Indian (Imperial) Police. However, it is not possible to pinpoint a date on which it could positively be claimed that the Indian Police came into being. In around 1907, the Secretary of States officers were directed to wear the letters “IP” on their epaulettes to distinguish them from the other officers not recruited by the Secretary of State. In this sense, 1907 could be regarded as the starting point for the Indian Police.
REFORMS ORDERED BY THE SUPREME COURT (1996-2006)
Prakash Singh, one of the former Director Generals of Police of the states of Assam and subsequently Uttar Pradesh and finally Director General of the Border Security Force, initiated a Public Interest Litigation (PIL) in the Supreme Court of India, asking the court to investigate measures to reform the police forces across India to ensure the proper rule of law and improve security across India.
Several measures were identified as necessary to professionalize the police in India:
Three new authorities will be created in each state, to prevent political interference in the police and also to make the police accountable for their heavy-handedness, which will include the creation of:
In 2006, due to a lack of action by all the state governments in India, the Supreme Court of India ordered the state governments to report to it why the reform measures outlined were not implemented. After being questioned in front of the judges of the Supreme Court of India, the state governments are finally starting to reform the police forces and give them the operational independence they need for fearless and proper law enforcement. Tamil has been in the forefront of application of the new referendum.
The authorized cadre strength of Indian Police Service is 4720. (3270 Direct Recruitment Posts and 1450 Promotional Posts).
To serve in the IPS one has to be elevated from the state cadre or get a decent rank in the rigorous Civil Services Examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission every year which is a common examination for selection to All India Services, including the IAS and various other Group A and Group B services of Central Government.
Civil Services Examination has a three stage competitive selection process. At stage one, there is an objective type examination called the preliminary exam. This is a qualifying examination. It consists of General Studies & aptitude test. Only the candidates, who clear this, can appear for the next stage called the Main examination which consists of nine papers. Each candidate has to select two optional subjects, apart from which all candidates have to take a General Studies, Essay and compulsory language paper and English paper. This is followed by an interview.
After selection for the IPS, candidates are allocated their Cadres. There is one cadre in each Indian state, except for three joint cadres: Assam-Meghalaya, Manipur-Tripura, and Arunachal Pradesh-Goa-Mizoram-Union Territories (AGMUT). As per Indian Constitution 2/3 of the strength of every cadre is filled by direct IPS officers and rest 1/3 is elevated from respective state cadre officers. Each state and union territory of India has a state police force, headed by the Commissioner of Police (State) or Director General of Police (DGP). It is controlled by the Chief Minister and Home Minister of the state/union territory. The state police is responsible for maintaining law and order in townships of the state and the rural areas. States such as Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra have taken steps to get their police force trained by advanced police training schools notably the Atlanta City Police of the USA. The Tamil Nadu state police is at the forefront of advancement with the Tamil Nadu Police Academy, which now seeks university status. The advanced training that the Tamil Nadu Police undergo vary from fraud investigation to advanced patrol training. This training when completed will make the Tamil Nadu Police one of the most advanced police forces in India. City Police Services on the other hand are known for their one lesson fits all attitude. The Indian Police Forces have been trying to secure better training and capabilities for their personnel, but with indifferent success due to their own encumbered structure. Police Service officers Pay according to 6th Pay.
RANKS OF THE IPS
All State Police Services officers of and above the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Police (DSP) or Assistant Commissioner of Police (ACP) in State Police and Metropolitan Police forces respectively.
National Emblem above One star above Crossed Sword and Baton (same insignia as a General in the Indian Army)
Director, Intelligence Bureau (Government of India)
National Emblem above Crossed Sword and Baton (same insignia as a Lieutenant-General in the Indian Army)
One Star above Crossed Sword and Baton (same insignia as a Major-General in the Indian Army)
National Emblem above three stars in a triangle (same insignia as a Brigadier in the Indian Army)
National Emblem above two stars (same insignia as a Colonel in the Indian Army)
National Emblem above one-star (same insignia as a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Indian Army)
National Emblem (same insignia as a Major in the Indian Army)
Three stars (same insignia as a Captain in the Indian Army)
Two stars (same insignia as a Lieutenant in the Indian Army)
One-star (same insignia as a Second Lieutenant in the Indian Army)
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